In Mathematics, Geometry is one of the most important branches that deals with the study of different shapes and their properties. Based on the dimensions, the geometrical shapes are classified. For example, if a shape has two dimensions, then it comes under two-dimensional geometry.
The study of various properties, area, and perimeter of different two-dimensional shapes are called two-dimensional geometry or plane geometry. Some of the important 2D shapes are circle, triangle, rhombus, parallelogram, etc.
Similarly, if a shape has three-dimensions, such as length, breadth, and height, it comes under three-dimensional shapes. The study of surface area and the volume of different 3D shapes are called three-dimensional geometry or solid geometry. The most familiar 3D shapes are cube, cuboid, cylinder, cone, and so on.
Generally, if two-dimensional figures are rotated about an axis, the three-dimensional shapes are obtained. Here, we are going to discuss some of the essential solid shapes and their properties. The three main vital attributes that will define the 3d shapes are:
Face: The flat surface of a shape is called the face.
Edge: A line segment that acts as an interface between two faces of a shape is called an edge.
Vertex: If two or more edges meet at a point, then it is called a vertex.
The different classifications of 3D shapes depend on the three attributes, as mentioned above. Now, let us discuss the properties of different solid shapes.
The cube is one of the basic 3D shapes, which we have learned in our schools. The cube is the 3D form of the two-dimensional shape called a square. If we look at the shape cube, the base shape, and the side shape should be a square. The cube has 6 faces, 8 vertices, and 12 edges. The well-known examples of cubes which we have seen in our daily life are ice cubes, Rubik’s cube, and so on.
A cone is a solid shape, which has a single vertex and circular base. It is a shape that narrows smoothly from the circular flat base to the point called the vertex or apex. A cone has 1 flat face, 1 curved face, 1 vertex, and 1 edge. Examples of cones are ice cream cones, funnel, party hats, etc.
A cuboid is a 3D shape, which is obtained from the rotation of the 2D shape called a rectangle. It means all the six faces of a cuboid are rectangular. Hence, we can say that the cuboid is also called a rectangular prism. Similar to a cube, a cuboid has 6 faces, 8 vertices, and 12 edges. Bricks, boxes, refrigerators, etc., are some of the examples of cuboids.
The cylinder is considered as one of the basic curvilinear geometrical shapes without vertex. It is a shape in which a curved surface connects two circular faces. A cylinder has two edges. Some of the examples of cones are pipe, test tube, etc.